Sunday, April 28, 2013
Click on picture to enlarge. At this point we have 6 groups of L160+ (and the Z110+ group only known from 1000 Genomes Project sequences). I don't know if F1295+ and PF4088+ are the only basic branches of L160+ or if there will be more. Usually I can tell if someone belongs to Z118+ or Z106+ based on 67 marker results, but we don't have enough results to make predictions for the other groups. About 40% of L160+ belongs to Z106+, but I don't know how big the other groups will turn out to be.
F1295, PF4088 and CTS11338are available for order as individual SNPs at Family Tree DNA, but each costs $39. My recommendation is that L160+ people order the Genographic 2.0 test for $199, it will test all the SNPs on the tree above and many more (except for a few of the Z SNPs and L1299).
Thursday, January 17, 2013
Another Geno 2.0 result this week creates another level in the I-M26 tree, and now the L160 section is so large that it requires its own diagram, see above.
Someone with paternal ancestry from the Azores is the first person at Geno 2.0 to test L160+ and PF4088-. We have one English ancestry man and one Welsh ancestry man who have L160+ PF4088+ results from Geno 2.0.
The Azorean person is also F1295+ and PF6950+. He is the first person in I-P37.2 to be derived for those SNPs.
Monday, January 07, 2013
This tree includes all known SNPs in I-M26. The format is based on this tree which shows mainly Z SNPs discovered by volunteers looking at 1000 Genomes data:
There are probably millions of men belonging to I-M26, they live in Spain, Portugal, France (up to 5% of men in some parts of these countries); and in descendants of Spanish, Portuguese and Frenchmen in the Americas etc, and they also comprise about 40% of the men on the island of Sardinia. I-M26 is found in less than 1% of men in Ireland, Great Britain, the low countries, western Germany, Switzerland, the Italian peninsula etc. but it is very characteristic of western Europe and has a long presence there (i.e. 5,000 year old I-M26 skeletons have been found in southern France and near Paris).
There are at least 11 different SNP-defined groups on my tree, but I estimate that over 90% of I-M26 men belong to the green, blue, or red groups. With 67 STR markers, almost everyone can be placed in one of the minor groups, the green group, the blue group, or one of the red groups. But we don't yet have enough results to know if there are STR patterns that can distinguish between the three red groups.
Probably the PF4189+ group will have many more members besides the "1 English Family". But I don't know which of the three red groups will be biggest when we have done more testing. Unfortunately, some of the important tests are not offered by Family Tree DNA (Z105, Z120, CTS11338, PF4189); these are only available as part of the Geno 2.0 test at this time.
In the near future with more Geno 2.0 results we will learn much more about the three red groups. And we will learn if the PF6947+ group is a major part of the green group or not. But unfortunately Geno 2.0 will probably not teach us much more about about the green group--there is surely a SNP out there that is shared by almost all of the green group, but it hasn't been found at Geno 2.0 or in WTYs so far.
Tuesday, December 18, 2012
Genographic Project 2.0 heat maps for paternal haplogroup I-M26 and I-PF4189. They are exactly the same, and supposedly Sardinia doesn't have these groups. Are the I-M26 people who make up 40% of men in Sardinia considered a different, more specific haplogroup?
Click on pictures to enlarge.
Click on pictures to enlarge.
Thursday, March 29, 2012
Saturday, October 22, 2011
Since my most recent post we have tested the new SNPs in many different I-M26 people from all the major subgroups. All were L673+ and L707+ so I think L673 and L707 are equivalent to M26. (It's possible that these SNPs and L158 and L159 are actually above M26, not equivalent. But the other major groups of I-P37.2 are ancestral (negative) for all these SNPs, there are a few small groups who have not tested all of them yet).
L672 is more interesting, some I-M26 people are L672+ and some are L673- which introduces a new level in the tree. It turns out that all the people with YCAIIa,b=11,21 (or who are close matches to these people even if they have different values) are L672+. The people who are expected to test L277+ are L672-, and these people have YCAIIa,b=18,21 and are quite different in all their markers from the L672+ people. (L277 is placed in quotes because Family Tree DNA cannot make this test work for L277+ people, but we have results from 23andMe).
Saturday, September 24, 2011
(Click on tree to enlarge)
This is a hasty phylogenetic tree I drew up showing the major groups of I-M26 (which has been known as I2a1 for the last 3 years or so). This is the group well-known for occurring in around 40% of men in Sardinia. But in the last three years we have discovered several new SNPs that split M26 into more specific groups which occur in different regions, all in westernmost Europe.
The Sardinian M26 seems to be all L160+ which makes an out of Sardinia origin unlikely. Spain and France contain most of the major groups of M26 and I think our M26 ancestors started expanding from somewhere like southern France, up the Atlantic coast to northern France, Britain and Ireland, and probably up the Rhine to Western Germany and Switzerland. A very few M26 made it to Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The single M26 I know of from Iceland has a 37 marker STR haplotype similar to some Irish M26+ L160- people. There are also a very few M26+ people from Jewish families from Poland, Belarus and Odessa, I believe most of these probably go back to Sephardic (Spanish/Portuguese Jewish) roots, and in fact some of the families have a tradition that their paternal ancestors were Sephardic.
Some specifics about the tree: the green triangles show the periods when population have been expanding, the L160+ triangle is the biggest because this group is most common. The dates when the expansions started and when the different groups split is very loosely based on Ken Nordtvedt's work but I didn't attempt to show his calculations very accurately. Not shown is M161 which was discovered before the year 2000 but has never been found in testing at Family Tree DNA or as far as I know at 23andMe. Also not shown is the Z106 SNP, this is a subset of L160+ which probably occurs in about 1/3 of Spanish L160+ and in a much smaller percentage of English and other northern L160+. The L277 SNP is placed in quotes because FTDNA has not been able to sequence the L277 area, our information on L277 comes mostly from 23andMe. Finally, there is yet another SNP called L707 which shows the same pattern so far as L672 and L673, we are currently testing all of these in the L277+ group.
(Note: in the final line of the tree picture "happened in position A or B" should be "B or C")